The Scots under Robert the Bruce defeated a greater and better armed force under Edward II.

A lot of writers don’t realize that there is a marked difference between destriers and coursers. The former were ponderous and huge to carry a knight in full armor and were often “barded” (armored). The coursers were tall, lean and fast, but could not carry as much weight. Coursers gave the Scots more maneuverability and in the end proved a better addition to mounted troops.

The Scots had pit traps on their side of the Bannockburn fords, making it impossible for the mounted English knights to get at their flank by crossing it. Then the English knights tried to make an UPhill charge at the Scots archers. Dumb. Dumb. Dumb.

The English bill men had a looser formation compared to the Scots schiltroms. The schiltroms’ close formations made mince of the English cavalry by going for the horses. The Scots cavalry, mounted on faster horses, made mince of the English archers. Finally they packed the English into a limited area where their heavy cavalry could not get sufficient room to maneuver. The terrain worked to the Scots’ advantage. It was hard to make a good charge on heavy destriers across the muddy ground around the Bannockburn. Edward II fled with 500 of his knights and were harried the entire way.

The big prize for the Scots was capturing the entire English baggage train, which was worth about ₤100,000.